When a child, aged more than 5 years, repeatedly urinates in clothes or into bed, intentionally or involuntarily, especially with a frequency of more than twice a week for atleast 3 months, a formal diagnosis of Enuresis can be made. This may occur at night (nocturnal) or sometimes, in the daytime (diurnal) too.
Many factors play a role in normal bladder control, like, neuromuscular development, cognitive development, genetic factors, socio-emotional factors and even toilet-training. Difficulties in one or more of these areas may lead to delay in bladder control in a child.
Parents are advised to restrict their child’s water/liquid consumption in the late evenings and night. They are also asked to train their child to go to the washroom just before sleeping. Other measures are also advised as per the clinical picture of the patient.
A detailed history and an elaborate, general, neurological and mental state examination is done to rule out any neurological/medical causes of enuresis. Sometimes, laboratory or radiological tests, too, are advised. Once diagnosis is confirmed, a combination of behaviour therapy and medication is advised. The younger, the child, the more important, behaviour therapy becomes.
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